An introduction to the psychological and sociological perspectives on human development and behaviou
Humanistic perspective psychology
Perspectives[ edit ] While the use of one system to solve all problems has been abandoned by most psychologists, these early systems were important in the development of new systems and ideas. Clinical psychologists are more likely to treat or conduct research into the causes of abnormal behaviors, while counseling psychologists more often work with mild social or emotional problems. When hundreds of thousands of Egyptians turned out in to protest government corruption, they were using postconventional morality. Psychological Perspectives on Self-Development Psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud — was one of the most influential modern scientists to put forth a theory about how people develop a sense of self. At this stage, people also recognize that legality and morality do not always match up evenly Kohlberg Many biological psychologists have concentrated on abnormal behavior and have tried to explain it. Trying to break up behavior into separate parts is simplistic because everything affects everything else. At the turn of 19th century the founding father of experimental psychology Wilhelm Wundt tried to experimentally confirm his hypothesis that conscious mental life can be broken down into fundamental elements which then form more complex mental structures. The whole movement had evolved from the early philosophers, such as Aristotle and Plato. It has been naturally selected, i. Learning is seen as behavior change molded by experience; it is accomplished largely through either classical or operant conditioning described below. During the second year, the source of excitation is said to shift to the anal area, and the start of toilet training leads the child to invest libido in the anal functions. Another way to think of the difference is that psychologists tend to look inward mental health, emotional processes , while sociologists tend to look outward social institutions, cultural norms, interactions with others to understand human behavior. A school psychologist works in a school environment to evaluate the structure and effectiveness of the learning environment.
A scientific approach, such as behaviorism or cognitive psychology, tends to ignore the subjective i. Harlow, Harry F. The Biological Perspective Biopsychology—also known as biological psychology or psychobiology—is the application of the principles of biology to the study of mental processes and behavior.
Skinner felt that some behavior could be explained by the person's motive.
Psychological perspective definition
History of Cognitive Psychology Cognitive psychology is one of the more recent additions to psychological research. This later gave rise to applied behavior analysis ABA , in which operant conditioning techniques are used to reinforce positive behaviors and punish unwanted behaviors. The majority of mainstream psychology is based on a framework derived from cognitive psychology, although the popularity of this paradigm does not exclude others, which are often applied as necessary. This has an evolutionary function. The information in our unconscious affects our behavior, although we are unaware of it. The primary developments in behaviorism came from the work of Ivan Pavlov, John B. When hundreds of thousands of Egyptians turned out in to protest government corruption, they were using postconventional morality. Social psychology is the scientific study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others Allport, Advantages and Disadvantages Humanistic psychology is holistic in nature: it takes whole persons into account rather than their separate traits or processes. The Construction of Reality in the Child. Psychology as a medical discipline can be seen in Thomas Willis' reference to psychology the "Doctrine of the Soul" in terms of brain function, as part of his anatomical treatise "De Anima Brutorum" "Two Discourses on the Souls of Brutes". Theorists in the biological perspective who study behavioral genomics consider how genes affect behavior. Perspectives Conclusion Therefore, in conclusion, there are so many different perspectives in psychology to explain the different types of behavior and give different angles. Psychodynamic therapy, in which patients become increasingly aware of dynamic conflicts and tensions that are manifesting as a symptom or challenge in their lives, is an approach to therapy that is still commonly used today. Each perspective has its strengths and weaknesses, and brings something different to our understanding of human behavior.
Below is a summary of the six main psychological approaches sometimes called perspectives in psychology. While behaviorism and cognitive schools of psychological thought may not agree theoretically, they have complemented each other in practical therapeutic applications like cognitive-behavioral therapy CBTwhich has been used widely in the treatment of many different mental disorders, such as phobias, PTSD, and addiction.
This study demonstrated how emotions could become conditioned responses.
The first published study in this area was an experiment in by Norman Triplett on the phenomenon of social facilitation. Although Freud's theories are only of limited interest in modern academic psychology departments, his application of psychology to clinical work has been very influential.
Early environment[ edit ] The first use of the term "psychology" is often attributed to the German scholastic philosopher Rudolf Goeckel Latinized Rudolph Gocleniuspublished in The ego, which has conscious and unconscious elements, is the rational and reasonable part of personality. By studying only a narrow range of culture within human populations, psychologists fail to account for a substantial amount of diversity.
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